Nowadays, many people suffer from diabetes, especially the elderly. It is a non-curable disease. There are 3 types of diabetes : type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes. In addition, there are some risk factors for the development of diabetes. But what are the different precautions you need to take to avoid its complications?
Diabetes : what is it ? And what are its different types ?
First of all, diabetes is a non-curable, but controllable disease. It is caused by a lack of a hormone called insulin. The role of insulin is to regulate the amount of sugar in the blood, i.e. the blood sugar level.
The malfunctioning of insulin causes glucose not to enter the muscle, heart and brain tissues, which use it as a source of energy. Glucose then builds up and causes the body to become hyperglycaemic.
Type 1 diabetes is usually seen at an age below 30 years. It is characterised by the almost complete absence of insulin.
The second is type 2 diabetes. This usually affects people aged 40 and over. For some, it is characterised by insufficient insulin production. For others, it is characterised by insulin dysregulation or non-acceptance of insulin by the cells.
The third type is gestational diabetes, or pregnancy diabetes. This type occurs during pregnancy in a woman who did not previously have diabetes.
What precautions can be taken to avoid complications of diabetes?
To avoid complications of diabetes, there are a few precautions to take. This means reducing the amount of fat, avoiding sweets, eating less salt, and reducing alcohol consumption.
Secondly, you should engage in regular physical activity. This improves the action of insulin and reduces the amount of sugar in the blood. In addition, avoid stress. It is one of the triggers of diabetes. So don’t neglect your social life. Try to relax with your friends and family.
Also, stop smoking. It is a risk factor for diabetes, and increases its complications. And, you should also watch your weight, as being overweight is also a risk factor.
Other precautions to avoid diabetes complications
There are other precautions to avoid diabetes complications. These different risk factors are modifiable. But there are others that are not, for example, age, genetic predisposition, history (giving birth to a baby weighing more than four kilos).
In addition, know the warning signs. There are a few clues that help you to know : fatigue, lack of energy, intense thirst, difficulties in healing… And, pay attention to certain pathologies. High blood pressure, triglyceride levels in the blood, or high cholesterol levels favour the onset of type 2 diabetes.